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There are two types of secrecy in financial transactions: anonymity and confidentiality. When a non-profit organization receives an anonymous donation, they do not have any information about the donor (anonymous) information, but do know the amount of the donation they received. And when you withdraw money at the bank, the amount you withdraw is confidential – the person behind you doesn’t know the exact amount you took, but they know you’re withdrawing.
An important reason for the difficulty of large-scale commercial use of blockchain finance is that, as a public ledger, although it establishes trust between different participants, it also brings a new problem, protecting user privacy data. How to do? Since all data on the chain is open and transparent, once it is mined and used maliciously, it will pose a serious threat to user privacy.
Existing blockchain privacy protection solutions can be divided into three categories: solutions based on crypto mix transactions, Layer 1 native chain architecture, and cryptography.
For a privacy protection solution to crypto mixing transactions, privacy cryptos such as Dash combine the transaction information of participants and block the connection between the sender and receiver; It simply cannot trace the asset and does not hide important information such as sender, recipient and transaction amount.
Solutions for Layer1 native chain architecture include Nym, Secret Network, Iron Fish, Manta Network, etc. Starting with the blockchain architecture, the solution modifies the architecture so that nodes in the blockchain maintain separate ledger information. Although it can effectively avoid leakage of user privacy, it is not compatible with Ethereum, which is the largest existing blockchain ecosystem, and it is difficult to scale application scenarios and build an ecosystem.
As for cryptography solutions, it uses cryptography technology to protect the confidentiality of participants’ transactions, with the highest level of security for transaction information in a zero-knowledge proof. More prominent solutions are Zcash, Aztec. However, although Aztec and Zcash can achieve complete confidentiality and non-negotiability, they are not suitable for a variety of complex scenarios due to the UTXO model.
Taking into account the existing privacy protection deficiencies, we propose a concise, efficient, non-interactive and auditable privacy protection solution based on the account model. It has the following characteristics:
- Privacy protection: It can realize the confidentiality of the address and the confidentiality of the amount in the transfer transaction.
- Programmability: The protocol incorporates API interfaces such as private transfer, private transaction, and cross-chain, which easily brings developers a privacy engine across the computing and storage layers, and supports the implementation of various complex applications through smart contracts. Is.
- Scalability: To be applicable to a large number of financial transaction scenarios, privacy protocols must meet high TPS, low cost and high stability network systems.
- Multi-Chain Interoperability: The multi-chain interoperability protocol is compatible with mainstream public chains such as ETH, Matic, AVX, and BSC. It can realize bridging assets, cross-chain messaging, and cross-chain state sharing, lending, swap, governance and more scenarios.
What is Tusima?
Tusima is a controllable privacy network based on the account model. It integrates zero-knowledge proofs, recursive proofs, homomorphic encryption and other technologies to achieve controllable on-chain data privacy functions, protect the privacy of Web3 users’ sensitive data and create a scalable financial system with high TPS. builds the network. It aims to build controllable privacy finance infrastructure in the Web3.0 era.
Specifically, Tusima enjoys the anonymity of user identities and confidentiality of transaction data. Private asset exchange can be realized between any blockchain network, and controlled access to user’s private data is supported. Its basic idea is to use layer 2 for state management and layer 1 security layer for asset transfer and exchange in a completely decentralized manner.
Based on the characteristics of zk-rollup. All funds are held by smart contracts on the mainchain, while off-chain computation and storage is performed, and the validity of the computation is ensured by zero-knowledge proofs. ZK-rollup and homomorphic encryption provide transaction confidentiality while improving performance and significantly reducing costs. Tusima integrates the transaction status at Layer2 and updates the same final status at each Layer1. Status updates are maintained by ZK-Rollup to achieve decentralization and security similar to Layer1. Furthermore, Tusima is based on an account model, which provides flexible extensibility and programmability for the community and developers.
What is the solution to the main problems?
- On-chain identity and confidentiality of transaction data
- Privacy function with controllable access
- Efficient and low-cost rollup transactions with the security of Ethereum’s main chain
- The second layer of the ZK-based auditability scheme Tusima ensures the validity of the source of network assets.
What are the technical advantages?
- The privacy solution based on the account model is different from the technical implementation based on UTXO in the market. It has high scalability and supports smart contract programming. Tusima uses the asymmetric homomorphic encryption algorithm Elgamal to perform encryption between ciphertexts. Due to the asymmetry of the algorithm, users can decrypt their own transaction data, but cannot view other people’s data or be viewed by unauthorized users.
- More Efficient Privacy Address Shuffle Technique (Shuffle)
- Full network, full link confidentiality (user local encryption, second layer network nodes do not know transaction information, and first layer network does not know transaction information)
- Use Halo2 Recursive Proofs for Parallel Computing to Get Faster Zk Proof Speeds
- Use the Planck Algorithm to Minimize Proofs to Get Low Transaction Costs
- ZK-based auditability scheme, Tusima’s second layer to ensure the source of network asset validity
What are the application scenarios?
- Application scenarios of high frequency and high interactivity business activities
As the most widely used and most reliable on-chain infrastructure, Ethereum cannot be used in high-frequency and high-interaction business scenarios due to its high usage cost and low transaction efficiency, and it is Can only be used as the final data settlement layer, while Tusima is based on ZK-Rollup technology, is the fastest transaction solution in current blockchain, transaction cost is not 1/100 of Ethereum, and mainchain on Ethereum level of security.
- Commercial and Financial Privacy Landscapes
Blockchain is an open ledger technology. Open, transparent and verifiable transaction data ensures ledger accuracy and consistency. However, the openness and transparency of data does not suit everyone. Transactional data, especially commercial financial data, inherently require privacy protections. Regardless of whether money, securities, banks or other financial institutions, the use of blockchain to solve data settlement problems should be inseparable from data privacy issues. The use of blockchain to solve the problem of data settlement must be inseparable from the problem of data privacy. After Tusima supports business scenarios with high efficiency and low cost, the main problem of privacy protection of transaction data on chain is solved. In the Tusima financial network, only users know their transaction information, not even the nodes that verify the transaction, and no one else can know the specific information of the transaction unless unless authorized by the user. For financial institutions, Tusima allows users to encrypt and decrypt transaction information.
Tusima not only provides privacy to the transaction address and transaction amount, but also solves one of the most troubling problems currently: the MEV problem (or front-running problem). Tusima offers complete protection against MEVs, unlike other Layer2, which rely on low latency to partially block MEVs.
Firstly, Tusima is implemented on the basis of Layer2, its low retardation is inherently resistant to MEV. Secondly, the amount of each transaction is encrypted according to the public key, and only the user knows the details of the transaction. Lastly, Tussima has a fair type of service. Tusima’s mempool is a first-in, first-out (FIFO) queue that deals with the creation of privacy certificates. Each transaction must be guaranteed to be executed in order. All transactions in all Tusima are fully protected against MEV operations.
How to participate in Tusima testnet?
Tusima Network, a controlled privacy protocol based on ZK-Rollup, has officially launched public testnet campaigns and distribution of test contribution certificates (SBT) on 30 September.
The public testnet will run until October 31, 2022. Users can participate in testing during the testnet phase. The functions mainly include Layer 1 recharge, Layer 2 private transfer, withdrawal and viewing of private transaction records. We recommend that users read the Tusima Testing Manual for more information and instructions about Tusima TestNet.
During the public testnet, you can submit feedback to the Discord channel, giving your experiences and suggestions about the product. And follow us on Twitter and Medium so you don’t miss upcoming events.
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